Cold recycling is an economically efficient and environmentally friendly method for the production of base layers with homogenizing layers of the existing road with repair additives, required binders, and water.
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All materials can be recycled from the old road structure up to 55-60 mm grain size. The most important additives are crushed stone, gravel, and milled asphalt but other materials can also be used from the standard. Binding agents are normally cement, bitumen, or bitumen emulsion.
There are two different technological methods of Cold Recycling based on whether mixing takes place on the site or in a mixing plant.
Cold recycling on site
When cold recycling in-situ, a cold recycler granulates the existing pavement material while homogeneously mixing in binding agents and water at the same time. This method produces a new construction material mix in just one single machine pass. Cold recyclers are equipped with powerful milling and mixing rotors and with highly efficient injection systems. Some machine models are additionally fitted with paving screeds for placing and pre-compacting the new material mix. This method produces base layers of high bearing capacity.
Necessary additives have to be spread in advance. A pulverized binding agent either deposited directly onto the road or through a suspension feeder on the machine. Bituminous binding materials and water are proportionality with the help of computer-controlled special pumps and spray bars. Tankers and suspension mixers are connected in front of the cold remixer.
This technology is most suitable for roads where load-bearing characteristics of the earthwork sub-layer are sufficient, but the road structure needs upgrading. By producing a solid base structure with in-situ cold recycling and with additional asphalt layers, environment-friendly and economical roads can be constructed.
Cold recycling in the plant
When cold recycling in the plant, the damaged pavement material is first removed by a cold milling machine and then transported to a mobile cold mixing plant near the job site. The milled material is mixed with binding agents in the plant to produce a new cold mix that is suitable for immediate paving.
With this technological method, earthwork is uncovered, therefore necessary soil treatments can be carried out before laying back the cold mixed material.